– The End –

image 1Don’t leave me!! 😦 I will miss you!

Source by: http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-H0L8FxpR4VM/TlscT4L8ouI/AAAAAAAAEJg/7mtq5Yvxk50/s1600/Toy%2BStory%2Bending.jpg

The 10th blog post, the final blog post. Finally! Haha! I have a very complex feeling now because this is the very last blog post for educational purpose. I’m going to finish my degree in within a month. 😦 I’m so gonna miss my degree life with blogging.

So, here comes to the end, what I have learned? Basically, I think the numbers of  issues in media are uncountable. I’m lucky because I’m a media student that able to have this great chance to understand the media more. For ordinary people, media is their entertainment; for me, media is part of my future. If media collapse one day, I will be unemployed too.

Instead of just learning what is the issue, I also get to understand the real story behind. All the topics I learn in BCM310 has their real story. Take hidden cost in media as an example. I’m an IPhone user and I did not know the non-monetary cost behind Apple product until I attend the lecture. I didn’t know China has used so many manpower in producing Apple product and what shocked me is these workers actually need to work 24 hours for 7 days. When I was thinking I need to appreciate more, the lecture continues with E-waste. I feel sorry to the workers in China. Appreciate what people have done to you, at least do not change your gadgets so constantly. Besides, there are many issues that have real story behind that is important for us to understand. For more information, refer to my previous post 😀

Through this subject, I have learn how to think an issue from different perspective. I always tell myself to be more subjective but I can always get influence easily. Through questions have been asked by Miss Rohayu in every classes, I actually think my knowledge are just 30% of my classmates’ knowledge. I have learned how to think more widely. Instead of understanding the word, I learn how to understand the meaning behind the words. Luckily I have my friends, Sook Mun, Wei Ling and Jia Xin to explain to me about the issue sometimes, because I was so lost when I was trying to type my blog. It is really interesting to discuss issue with friends outside the class.

Finally, what makes me understand the issues in media better is when Miss Rohayu asked me to answer different questions from different issue. I very surprise that Miss Rohayu has actually called my name every lecture. Haha! Thank you Miss Rohayu, you have  successfully motivated me to concentrate in class and also understand the issue better. Of course, thank you my fellow classmates! It has come to the end! Good Luck!

– The End –


Problem or solution

What is the hidden cost of media used? This question has been discussed in class and I have answered with the answer that totally unrelated with the lecture. After the whole explanation from Miss Rohayu, I have finally understood that hidden cost does not really need to involve in money but non-monetary cost. Non-monetary cost can relates to man-power and technology waste.

In smart phone industry, the technology is getting better and better and the price is getting more expensive. I always think smart phone has a bit over-priced. However, there must be a reason that makes smart-phone over-priced. Have you ever think about why is it so expensive? I didn’t. I only keep complain about why is smart phones so expensive now. Despite the advancement of technology, the hard work of producing is one of the reasons why smart phones are expensive. According to this week lecture, IPhone has a factory in China named Foxconn. This factory is produce Apple products and it has being accused the workers are work in abusive. The workers are working in very stressful environment which require them to work seven days in a week for 24 hours. It is a very hectic working environment.

This consider as one of the hidden cost of media used. Apple users will hardly know the ugly-truth behind the products they use. When we are happily using Apple products, China workers in Foxconn are suffering on working in hectic and stressful environment which make them suffer in anxiety. Some of the workers even attempted to suicide and some died because they suicide.


Polluted environment due to e-waste

Source from: http://www.andrewmcconnell.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/04/Agbogbloshie15a.jpg

Besides, another hidden cost that worth to discuss is e-waste. E-waste is basically means electronic waste. ‘It is hazardous, complex and expensive to treat in an environmentally sound manner, and there is a general lack of legislation or enforcement surrounding it’ (Lundgren 2012). E-waste is a very expensive hidden cost from media used. It has very big impact to the environment and of course people’s health. ‘Of the e-waste in developed countries that is sent for recycling, 80 per cent ends up being shipped (often illegally) to developing countries such as China, India, Ghana and Nigeria for recycling’ (Lundgren 2012). Although they said the wastage are send to other country for recycle, but do they recycle in ethical way? In my opinion, no matter how hard an organization tries to recycle the e-waste without harming the others, there are still possibilities that the process of recycling harmful to the citizens at that area.

 ‘Readers may not be surprised to discover that media technologies contain toxic substances, or that the workers who assemble their cell phones and computers do so under hazardous conditions’ (Maxwell & Miller 2012). Many people aware technologies contain harmful substances and it will affect people’s health as well. But, people still change their technology gadgets constantly. ‘One might think that understanding the enormity of the environmental problems caused by making, using and disposing of media technologies would arrest our enthusiasm for them’ (Maxwell & Miller 2012). Even though people knows media technologies bring negative stuff to the environment, but people still continue supports the technology gadgets from different organization. People are just complicated. We know what is wrong and what is good to us, but we still continue doing what we like instead of concerning about what is good to us.

In my opinion, organization has to aware about importance of earning profit without harming the environment and innocence people. Concerning about the environment and people do not only working with ethical but also build up the good image for their organization. A best way to maintain the balance between profit and goodwill to the society is to produce a good gadgets and also having caring environment problem. A quote that my friend told me last time, “If you are not a part of the solution, then you will be a part of the problem”. Organization must give a solution on e-waste, if they continue producing e-waste, they will become a big problem to the society.




Lundgren, K 2012, The Global Impact of E-waste: Addressing the Challenge, International Labour Organization 2012, Switzerland, http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_dialogue/—sector/documents/publication/wcms_196105.pdf

Maxwell, R & Miller, T 2012, Greening the media, Oxford University Press, United State of America, UOW database. 

Hurtful conversation

image 2

Sourc from: http://25.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_lxxfux9JcF1qjldwoo1_500.jpg

Well said. We need to take responsible for what we said.

Words are powerful. A simple word can convey different meaning to different people. Hence, choice of word is very important when comes to a conversation, meeting, interview or even press conference. In Cyberworld, there are many platforms provide netizens a chance to comment on an issue, post up own information and more. These platforms normally do not have much restriction on choice of words. This somehow led to the issue of cyberbully and arguments. For me, communicating in the Internet has somehow provided people knowledge and also interaction with people at the other side of the earth.

‘Theoretically online dialogue might involve any medium of expression from emoticons to video blogging but as writer text is the most accessible, persistent..’ (Martin 2011). Any dialogues or comments can be in many different forms and each of it can have their impacts. Like what Martin mentioned, text is most accessible. I agree. Once we get to online, we exposed to more than billions words. So, a question here, since some words can create chaos, do we need to restrict people from posting sensitive words online? I used to think there are no restriction is needed since I support freedom of speech. However, after I discovered this case, I have changed my perspective.

There is a case happened in Canada. A Canada teenager committed suicide because she constantly was being bullied in school and Facebook. Her name is Amanda Todd, she used to webcam and chat with people. There were some people praised she was pretty, gorgeous and they asked her to exposed herself, and she did it. That guy Facebook message her and threatened her with her nude pictures and he put those photos online. She falled in depression and her parents transferred her to other school. That guy comes back but this time, he created a Facebook page with her nude photos. She started get bullied by her schoolmates from different schools. ‘Amanda’s friend, Gabriel Harrison, told CBC News that some of her tormentors were vicious.”People were hating on her on Facebook and posting rude stuff on her wall, and they’d give her shady looks and stuff and harass her in public too,” he said’ (CBC News 2012). I have summarized the whole story, for more information, you can visit to this link: http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/british-columbia/story/2012/10/11/bc-maple-ridge-suicide.html I feel really sad about this case. Although Amanda Todd did something wrong as well, but she doesn’t deserve all these bullies.

Most of the teenagers go online. In Todd’s case, most of the haters are teenagers and they post rude stuff and even tagged her in a photo. After she attempted to commit suicide, people commented in her Facebook like, ‘why are you not dying yet?’, ‘she deserves it’ and they even asked her try different bleach to suicide. She saw all these and her anxiety/depression get more serious.  After she committed suicide, there are still a bunch of people who still making fun of her with words and pictures online.



Source from: http://www.funnyjunk.com/funny_pictures/4164985/amanda+todd

It is very offensive and disrespectful! This posted up after Todd committed suicide.

After reading this case, do you think it is a must to have a restriction? As I mentioned, I used to think freedom of speech is important, now I think that restriction have to be apply in certain platforms for certain words that can create chaos. I understand that it is really hard for the website’s owner to govern all the conversation online. There is way to ease the website owner to govern the conversation. It is to let the netizens decide which contents they think it is inappropriate.  Take Youtube as example, users will able to comment in any videos they want. Users can report the comments they think it is abusive or harmful to people and Youtube will take action by deleting the comment.  I think it is a useful way for website owner to govern the conversation in the platform. With the power of netizens, different online platform will be able to govern conversation without watching the screen 24/7.

However, sometimes I think that we are fishes that live in a fish bowl. Our conversation online are govern by other people, just like how fishes being observe. No matter how the fishes hide themselves, fish bowl is transparent, people can find them easily. Just like us in the Internet. We are over-govern sometimes. We always have our rights in commenting anything. However, the comments or posting have to be something harmless to the other people. For example, I blogged something against an issue and it is all based my own opinion. I personally think it is not a problem for us to comment on something, just the word we use and the way we convey it. Convey your opinion carefully and wisely will help us avoid from chaos. A regulation is needed in Internet to prevent conversation that harm people, but certain freedom have to be given for people who comment something they like or want without harming anyone.  What I concern here is, do not hurt people with harmful words. Comment on an issue, not a person.

Lastly, self-regulation is very important also. Be wise and think twice before you posting something online.  A careless word can harm innocent people. Before complaining that there is no freedom of speech online, we have to be aware that words are from us. In my opinion, part of the reason that cause regulation happens in the Internet is because netizens themselves do not control themselves in using words online.



Martin, F 2012, ‘Vox populi, vox dei: ABC Online and the risks of dialogue interfaction’, in Histories of Public Services Broadcasters on the Web, editors N, Brugger and M, Burns, pp. 177 – 192, Peter Lang, New York, UOW Library

Rozario K, 2012, ‘Cyberbullying in Malaysia’, weblog post, Keithrozario.com: The Malaysian Tech Evangelist, 16 October, accessed 30 May 2013, http://www.keithrozario.com/2012/10/cyberbullying-in-malaysia.html

White Bread Media

People nowadays rely on media very much. Media does not only play the role of conveying message to the audiences, but also educating audiences about almost everything. The information can be as large as world issue or information regarding little stuff around us. I used to think media is always right and I only able to see one sided story. However, as time goes by and I started to explore different things in the society, I think media involves agenda settings to convince people and implant a specific image into people’s mind.


We are all controlling by media.

Source by: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-W1401QGO9fo/T9qUt79kAUI/AAAAAAAAADA/xCg3Ik3Uiu4/s1600/agendasetting.jpg

‘Agenda-setting theory deal with mass media’s ability to influence the perception of its audience and what they consider the most important issue of the day’ (Nwokeafor & Okunoye 2013). In a certain extent, media plays a role to influence people’s perception and thinking instead of providing knowledge on certain issue. Is this ethical or not? I personally think that this is somehow unethical because they might create propaganda to the audiences. Some of the audiences may not able to differentiate right or wrong and started to only listen to one-sided stories.

Because of the relationship between agenda-setting theory and media, it has created a media named “white bread media”. White bread media is means media that contains stereotype, discriminations and racism. These contents are not common and we can find in many different media. Portrayal in media plays a role here. Media constantly portray certain object or subject into a specific image they want. Those images media portrayed will generate media effects and started to influence people to think that way. For example, there is a movie named “The House Bunny” have portrayed blonde women as pretty lady that are not clever enough which people normally known them as “dumb blonde”. In this movie, it portrays the blonde as a pretty women that do not have any knowledge on history and cultures but knowledge on how to dressing up and how to attract men. Here is one of the scenes on how this movie portrays blonde.

Do you think it is a bit over-exaggerated?

However, I think this movie has over-exaggerated blonde’s characteristic. Media is trying to exaggerate blonde’s dumb characteristic to make the movie funnier. But this may cause people started to group blondes together and started to stereotype them. I think is it unfair to women with blonde hairs because people in the world are judging them before knowing their personality. This is when white bread media occur. Media brings in the issue and started to exaggerate it which started to implant false information to the audiences.

‘A notable cause for concern in recent years has been the role of media in inflaming community tensions and contributing to racism in Australia’ (Dreher n.d.).  In BCM310 class, Miss Rohayu has mentioned how the cases in Australia and I have understand how media take part in discrimination. Media has the responsibility on leading audiences to discrimination.

There are many discrimination issues happen around the world. In USA, there are White-American and African-American. The discrimination happens among these two groups of people. According to DeverBlackPages (n.d.), ‘mainstream mediums like CNN, People Magazine, and New York Times don’t cover African-American Issues in depth – civil rights, police brutality, etc; they mainly focus on white American issues. If we don’t create our own news mediums, how else are we supposed to be informed about our issues?’ Although African-American is coming out with their own newspaper and magazine, but they do not discriminate about other group of people in their media. I adore with African-American’s spirit on how they gain fairness for their group of people and how they fight for their rights.

lalaChoice of word is important. I don’t think using the word “black” is appropriate.

Source by: http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-xLvWxZBtoos/TcP5IqHQecI/AAAAAAAAAYU/hsZBEvA5JqA/s1600/are-black-women-invisible.jpg

Why will all these happen? It is because white bread media. There are many media discriminate people because of their race and gender. Newspaper the mainstream media always involves in discrimination of race which also caused racism. The choice of word is very important. From my observation, online newspaper always used the word black and white to differentiate African-American and White-American. This can clearly shows that they are differentiating these two groups of people by their skin color. Also, movies have also portrayed race discrimination as well. “Karate Kid” is a movie about an American-African kid migrated to China and he discriminated by Chinese when he’s pursuing his dream. However, the movie’s ending is trying to generate a good ending with the Chinese has become friends with the American-African which indicate the message of “do not discriminate people”.

Media is powerful enough to influence audiences on their perception towards different objects and subjects. White bread media has become an influential media that implant information to the audiences and generate perception towards different subjects. However, instead of creating neutral information, they are creating information that will generate chaos among different people. As a media person, I hope there will be a solution to change people’s perception towards how they look on different issues.


Denverblackpages (n.d.), Are black newspapers and black magazines a form of reverse discrimination?, viewed 16 May 2013, http://www.denverblackpages.com/news/articles/sub/article2/article2.htm

Dreher T (forthcoming 2014), ‘White bread media’, The media and communications in Australia, eds Stuart Cunningham and Sue Tumbell, Allen and Unwin

Nwokeafor CU & Okunoye A (2013), ‘Media power in elections: evidence of the role of agenda-setting theory in political communication in Nigeria evolving democracy’, International Conference on ICT for Africa 2013, viewed 16 May 2013, http://ictforafrica.org/attachments/section/4/ict4africa2013_submission_48.pdf

Technology and Disabled People

image 1

Source from: http://www.adc.nt.gov.au/images/disabilities.jpg

Stop discrimination on disabled people!

Disabled people do not only involves people who are deaf, mute, blind but also people who have disability in conveying message, mental disorder and more. They do not only need helps physically but also mentally support. Disabled people always meet challenges and barriers in their life including discriminations. Technology is one of the challenges. Although some of the technologies helped disabled people in curing or making their life easier. However, with the advancement of technology, disabled people have meet challenges in using different gadgets with high technology.

After so many weeks of describing about technology world, I bet you and I have better understanding about technology. Again, technology is very important in terms of gathering people in the world, communication, storing information and etc. People around the world enjoyed very much in consuming technology especially smart phones that are a hit these days. However, people who have disabilities will hardly enjoy using the technologies.

‘In all this, disability is customarily invoked as a warrant for development of new technologies, from biotechnology to information and communication technologies, and “smart homes”’ (Goggin & Newell 2007). There are many different parties are trying to implement technologies in disabled people’s life. It is not an easy job I can say. However, with the advancement of technology, nothing is impossible.

According to Cortes et al. (2003), ‘Assistive technology devices can be very useful to provide supportive services for individuals who require assistance with the tasks of daily living’. Assistive technology is designed to help and assist people who have difficulties. According to Microsoft (n.d.), assistive technology provides ‘alternative input devices’ to provide people control technology gadgets with other devices other than keyboard and mouse. Assistive technology has become quite common nowadays and it provides many conveniences to not only disable people but everyone. There are many assistive technologies that helped disabled people, for example, ‘alternatives keyboards, electronic pointing devices, sip-and-puff systems, joystick and et cetera’ (Microsoft n.d.).

In this case, Apple has done multiple jobs in implanting assistive technology in their gadgets. For example, through attaching Braille device with IPhone, people who have visual impairments can control an IPhone freely and easily. I personally think it is really good because touch screen phones are actually not user-friendly to people who have visual impairment. Now with this kind of technology, people who have visual impairment can enjoy the moment of playing and typing with IPhone like how everyone do.

Here is a video about how visual impairment people use Braille device with IPhone.

Also, there are different applications have been created to help these disabled people. For example, speak for yourself. It works as a therapist to help people who have speaking disorder. It will help those people in conveying their message through tapping on the tablet’s screen. In my opinion, it is a very good ways to encourage people to try talking by interacting with those applications. Instead of just forcing the speaking disorder people try talking, using application to encourage them to talk and also communicate with people.

 Here is a video about application on helping speaking disorder people.

I am really glad that technologies able to help disabled people. Through technology, it has provided disabled people a thinking of they are like normal people and it helps in decreasing discrimination on disabled people. Although technology has helped disabled people very much but they still need people like us to provide them mentally support. Our job is here to provide them knowledge on how to use these technologies to make their life more lively and exciting.



Corties U, Annicchiarico R, Vazquez-Salceda J, Urdiales C, Canamera L, Lopez M, Sanchez-Marre M & Caltagirone C 2003, ‘Assistive technologies for the disabled and for the new generation of senior citizens: the e-tools architecture’, AI Communication, vol 16, pp. 193-207, viewed 10 May 2013, http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

Goggin G & Christopher N 2007, ‘The business of digital disability’, The Information Society: An International Journal, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 159-168, viewed 10 May 2013, UOW Library

May C 2013, Four ways technology can help disabled people, We are Reason Digital, viewed 10 May 2013, http://www.reasondigital.com/blog/136/Four-ways-technology-can-help-disabled-people/

Microsoft n.d., Types of assistive technology products, Microsoft, viewed 10 May 2013, http://www.microsoft.com/enable/at/types.aspx

Feudalization of the Internet & Walled Garden

This week’s topic is Feudalization of the Internet. What is the meaning of feudalization? It was applied during the old centuries for feudal lord of manor to control over their properties and lands.  This was when feudal system had formed. So how feudalization relates to internet? Take Facebook as an example. Facebook will be the feudal lord and users will be the peasants. Facebook controls or stores the information that users uploaded, shared or even private messages in users’ inbox.

But, I think feudalization in Internet is somehow stopping people from having freedom of speech. In my opinion, I think Internet is built up for people to share any information they like. It provides people different platforms for people to share any of their information. I have mentioned many different advantage of Internet and these advantages provide people a lot convenience including searching academic journals, searching information, communicate with people around the world and more. People do not only able to share information but also able to interacting with people around the world through sharing information or gaining information. However, through feudalization in the Internet, no matter what is Internet users doing online, different Internet platforms will be able to know and stores the information you shared, viewed, or even private messages. Even though users enjoy sharing stuff online, but they do not realize their privacy are in a fish bowl. Scary isn’t?

Image we are monitoring by other people!

Source from: http://ictkm.cgiar.org/wp-content/uploads/2010/06/fish-bowl.jpg

I personally think it is somehow scary because I will like to share and talk what I like in any platforms in the Internet. A lot different Internet platform requires users to sign up before users start to use their platform. They mostly require users to agree with terms and condition that stated they will use users’ information. Users normally do not read all the terms and condition so almost all of us do not know about this.

‘The Internet’s tradeoff of more flexibility for less security worked: most imaginable risks failed to materialize’ (Zittrain 2008). From my understanding on this statement, it means that the flexibility of the Internet cause insecure happens and there are risks that are unpredictable. There is one example from Zittrain, he said that people can now view other’s daily communication or posting online without purposely clicking in to that person’s profile or portfolio. I’m agree with this is because, take Facebook as an example, we only require a ‘like’ of any page, then we will start viewing their stuff they uploaded in our wall. This can also apply on my conversation with my friend where she thought I’m stalking her. I explained that she updated her status in Facebook and it automatically appears in my wall, I do not purposely clicked in to her profile and stalked her. I find it very annoying because since you have updated your stuff, why do you want to care about people looking at it? Once you updated something online, there will be no privacy any more. Be aware when you posting something online.


Walled garden. We are trapped!

Source from: http://www.dnjournal.com/cover/2011/images/january/walled-garden-jzcreationz-280.jpg

Feudalization has brought up walled garden. Walled garden is means Internet platform that is being controlled by the platform itself. Walled garden do not only apply on computer’s Internet platform but also Mobile Internet. According to Reuver (2011), ‘when GPRS technology enabled the first generation of mobile internet services, operators generally acknowledged that they would need to obtain content from third parties’. The moment when I read this sentence, I think it is related to invasion of privacy. Although they really need to obtain content through mobile internet service, but is that under ethical consideration? It somehow makes me feel insecure with what I have read and viewed through smart phones.

To conclude, I think having walled garden is somewhat unethical because it relates to invasion of privacy. Users have their rights on posting the stuff online and we do not hope our information leaks to the other people.



Mehra SK 2011, ‘Paradise is a walled garden? Trust, antitrust, and user dynamism’, George Mason Law Review 2010-2011, vol. 18, no. 4, viewed 1 May 2013, http://www.georgemasonlawreview.org/doc/18-4-MEHRA.pdf

Reuver MD 2011, ‘Governance of mobile service innovation after the walled gardens’, vol. 13, no. 1, viewed 1 May 2013, UOW library.

Zittrain JL 2008, The future of the Internet and How to Stop It, Yale Univevrsity Press, New Haven & London, viewed 1 May 2013, http://futureoftheinternet.org/static/ZittrainTheFutureoftheInternet.pdf

Digital & Universities



Source from: http://lib.eap.gr/en/images/digital.jpg

Google for information that you can get from hard copy books? 

In this digital age, people have started to lack of human communication. Every time when there are unsolved problems, people will surely go online and Google. It is weird that when I will google about any stuff when I could not find any solution. For example, I will google about what hair style should I cut or maybe how to lose weight.

In university, students always rely on digital products especially when smart phones have intruded to our life. This can be clearly seen when we are having discussion in class, students mostly will get out their phones and trying to get more information online. Not to say we are lazy to think, but there are more reliable and trustworthy information to support our points in discussion. But, it has given students a bad habit of playing smart phones online.

In university, Internet plays an important role. Imagine students’ life without Internet, students will be stressing in the library from getting books and journals. Besides finding books and journals we want, we still need to worry about some other students have borrowed the books we want. As an UOW student, I’m lucky that UOW provides library database with plenty of journals. I can get the journals free online. However, when I was in diploma, it was hard for me to get journals online as there are many e-journals require us to pay. As a student without any income, it is really hard for me to pay for e-journals. I understand that scholars have paid a lot hard work in their research, so I have chosen to get journals from the library.

If you let me to choose online readings or hard copy readings, it is really hard for me to choose. I like to collect novels and I enjoy reading them with coffee. But in terms of academic readings like journals and books, I will rather read it through Internet. It is because there are more choices from the Internet, especially academic journals. I personally think that both are important for me, how about you?

‘The various resources (e-mail, bulletin boards, chats, listservs, and the Web) available on the Internet are beneficial to students’ academic learning’ (Wang 2007). These resources provide lecturer and students a chance to communicate out of the classrooms. Instead of just having face-to-face conversation in classroom, students can email lecturers when there is an urgent issue and lecturers can uploads materials online freely and easily to their students. Compare to printing notes and bring it to classrooms, uploading materials online will bring convenience to lecturers. Also, lecturers may assign students to hand in assignments online. For example, we can now post our assignments online in WordPress but not handing in hardcopy to our lecturer. Classmates and I have a Facebook group online for us to discuss about assignments, make an announcement, sharing interesting pictures and more. We do not only have a platform for us to discuss assignments after class but also a platform for us to interact with each other.

‘If the Internet is not channeled as a useful resource to benefit students academically, students would most likely use the Internet for nonacademic activities, which is not only a waste of valuable resources, but also produces negative impacts upon student’s academic performance’ (Wong 2007).

I very agree with this statement from Wong. It is because students get distracted easily when there is something more interesting than assignments. Take myself as example, I always distracted by interesting video from Youtube or friend’s status in Facebook. However, when lecturer uploaded materials online, I will always remember there are notes for me to download whenever I online. Instead of just having plain entertainment, having study materials online will kept remind students to study. Although this might not apply to every student, but at least for me, it at least motivated me to study sometimes.

From all these aspects, digital seems really important for Universities. But do it really benefits the students and lecturers? There are many journals online and it provides convenience to students on researching and assignments. However, this might cause students copy other’s work online because there are many different sources online. As mentioned in Miller’s (2010) journal, he said that the hard copy documents usually are protected by copyrights but if the documents are online, it mostly provided free for people to get it from the web. This will have the risk for students to touch the copyright law. In my opinion, students have to use the resources wisely and credit to the scholars or original person who wrote the documents.

Digital age is really important for universities as there are many different features that bring convenience to both students and lecturers. Lecturers can post any require readings online for students to read before the class; and students can always get materials online for assignments and also get materials online that uploaded from lecturers. I personally think that students have to learn how to stop distracting by Internet and have the idea of appreciating others’ work online because they have paid a lot works on their research. Instead of just copying their works, remember to credit them as a respect and it can also prevent you from involving in copyright issue as well. 



Miller RE 2010, ‘The coming apocalypse’, Pedagogy, vol. 10, issue 1, pp. 143-151, UOW Library 

Wang YM 2007, ‘Internet uses in university courses, International Journal, vol. 6, no. 2, ProQuest